The Psalter is a body of liturgical
poetry. It is designed for vocal,
congregational use, whether by singing or reading. There are several
traditional methods of psalmody. The exclusive use of a single method
makes the recitation of the Psalter needlessly monotonous. The
traditional methods, each of which can be elaborate or simple, are the
Direct recitation denotes the
reading or chanting of a whole psalm, or
portion of a psalm, in unison. It is particularly appropriate for the psalm
verses suggested in the lectionary for use between the Lessons at the
Eucharist, when the verses are recited rather than sung, and may often be
found a satisfactory method of chanting them.
Antiphonal recitation is the
verse-by-verse alternation between groups of
singers or readers; e.g., between choir and congregation, or between one
side of the congregation and the other. The alternate recitation concludes
either with the Gloria Patri, or with a refrain (called the antiphon) recited
in unison. This is probably the most satisfying method for reciting the
psalms in the Daily Office.
Responsorial recitation is the
name given to a method of psalmody in
which the verses of a psalm are sung by a solo voice, with the choir and
congregation singing a refrain after each verse or group of verses. This
was the traditional method of singing the Venite, and the restoration of
Invitatory Antiphons for the Venite makes possible a recovery of this
form of sacred song in the Daily Office. It was also a traditional manner
of chanting the psalms between the Lessons at the Eucharist, and it is
increasingly favored by modern composers.
Responsive recitation is the
method which has been most frequently used
in Episcopal churches, the minister alternating with the congregation,
verse by verse.
The version of the Psalms which follows
is set out in lines of poetry. The
lines correspond to Hebrew versification, which is not based on meter or
rhyme, but on parallelism of clauses, a symmetry of form and sense. The
parallelism can take the form of similarity (The waters have lifted up, O
Lord I the waters have lifted up their voice; / the waters have lifted up
their pounding waves. Psalm 93:4), or of contrast (The Lord knows the
ways of the righteous; / but the way of the wicked is doomed. Psalm 1:6),
or of logical expansion (Our eyes look to the Lord our God, / until he
show us his mercy. Psalm 123:3).
The most common verse is a couplet, but
triplets are very frequent, and
quatrains are not unknown; although quatrains are usually distributed
over two verses.
An asterisk divides each verse into two
parts for reading or chanting. In
reading, a distinct pause should be made at the asterisk.
Three terms are used in the Psalms with
reference to God: Elobim
("God"), Adonai ("Lord") and the personal name YHWH. The "Four-
letter Name" (Tetragrammaton) is probably to be vocalized Yahweh; but
this is by no means certain, because from very ancient times it has been
considered too sacred to be pronounced; and, whenever it occurred,
Adonai was substituted for it. In the oldest manuscripts, the Divine
Name was written in antique and obsolete letters; in more recent
manuscripts and in printed Bibles, after the invention of vowel points, the
Name was provided with the vowels of the word Adonai. This produced
a hybrid form which has been transliterated "Jehovah."
The Hebrew reverence and reticence with
regard to the Name of God has
been carried over into the classical English versions, the Prayer Book
Psalter and the King James Old Testament, where it is regularly render
"Lord". In order to distinguish it, however, from "Lord" as a translation
of Adonai, YHWH is represented in capital and small capital letters:
From time to time, the Hebrew text has
Adonai and YHWH in
conjunction. Then, the Hebrew custom is to substitute Elohim for
YHWH, and our English tradition follows suit, rendering the combine
title as "Lord GOD."
In two passages (Psalm 68:4 and
Psalm 83:18), the context requires that
the Divine Name be spelled out, and it appears as YAHWEH. A similar
construction occurs in the Canticle, "The Song of Moses."
The ancient praise-shout, "Hallelujah,"
has been restored, in place of its
English equivalent, "Praise the Lord." The Hebrew form has been used,
rather than the Latin form "Alleluia," as being more appropriate to this
context; but also to regain for our liturgy a form of the word that is
familiar from its use in many well-known anthems. The word may, if
desired, be omitted during the season of Lent.